Some members of the NCTSN are involved in developing, testing, and disseminating evidence-based treatments for children who experience posttraumatic reactions following their exposure to domestic violence. These interventions are described briefly below, with links to resources that offer more complete information about each. Multimedia presentations on many of these interventions are available in the NCTSN Training Archives .
Child Parent Psychotherapy (CPP)
A dyadic attachment-based treatment for young children exposed to domestic violence and other interpersonal violence developed by the Child Trauma Research Project, University of California, San Francisco. Year-long treatment focuses on safety, affect regulation, understanding of trauma reactions, improving the parent-child relationship, and joint creation of trauma narrative.
Group Treatment for Children Affected by Domestic Violence
A manualized group treatment model developed by Children's Institute, Inc. (CII) for children aged 5 and over and their nonoffending parent. Children and adult victims of domestic violence attend parallel weekly groups. Topics include psychoeducation on safety, the cycle of violence, and parenting, as well as coping skills such as relaxation, mindfulness, yoga, and movement therapy. Additional interventions focus on feelings identification, trauma cues, anger management, cognitive processing, creating a trauma narrative, making meaning, and setting goals for the future. For more information on this intervention or training, contact CII's Child Trauma Treatment Center senior director, Dr. Leslie Anne Ross: firstname.lastname@example.org 
Structured Psychotherapy for Adolescents Responding to Chronic Stress (SPARCS) A group treatment for adolescents with chronic trauma exposure who may still be experiencing chronic stress and who have difficulties in many areas of functioning. Groups address such topics as affect regulation, impulsivity, relationships, numbing and avoidance, and making meaning of experiences. SPARCS was developed by the Adolescent Trauma Treatment Development Center, North Shore University Hospital.
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)
A brief treatment (ideally, 12 to 16 weeks) for children aged 3 to 18 affected by traumatic life experiences and their parents. TF-CBT helps children develop skills for processing the trauma; managing distressing thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; enhancing safety; and improving communication with parents; and helps parents increase parenting skills. TF-CBT was developed by Allegheny General Hospital Center for Traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents and New Jersey CARES Institute Center for Children's Support.