"What Works?" Reading List: Resources on the Assessment and Treatment of Child Traumatic Stress

This reading list was compiled by experts in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. It includes important recent work as well as classic books and articles on assessment and treatment of child traumatic stress by Network and other experts in the field.

Clicking on SUMMARY will open a new window with a summary of the selected article. We provide in-depth summaries for many of the works written by members of the NCTSN.

Because most books and articles are protected by copyright law, we cannot provide copies of them or links to full text. But whenever possible, we have provided links to articles on publishers' websites, where you may be able to access the full article, depending on the publisher's policy. You can also contact your local public, medical, or university library for help if you would like to read the full publications.

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 37 (10 supplement): 4S-26S. 1998.

Appleyard K and Osofsky JD. "Parenting after trauma: Supporting parents and caregivers in the treatment of children impacted by violence," Infant Mental Health Journal vol 24(2): 111-125. 2003. doi: 10.1002/imhj.10050 SUMMARY

Berliner L and Saunders BE. "Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children: Results of a controlled two-year follow-up study," Child Maltreatment vol 1(4): 294-309. 1996. doi:10.1177/1077559596001004002 SUMMARY

Cohen JA, Berliner L, and March JS. "Treatment of children and adolescents." In Foa EB, Keane TM, and Friedman MJ, eds, Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 106-138. New York, Guilford Press. 2000.

Cohen JA and Mannarino AP. "A treatment study for sexually abused preschool children: Outcome during a one-year follow-up," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 36(9): 1228-1235. 1997. SUMMARY

Cohen JA and Mannarino AP. "Predictors of treatment outcome in sexually abused children," Child Abuse and Neglect vol 24(7): 983-994. 2000. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Costello EJ, Angold A, March JS, and Fairbank JA. "Life events and post-traumatic stress: The development of a new measure for children and adolescents," Psychological Medicine 28(6): 1275-1288. 1998. Click here for a link to this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Deblinger E, Lippmann J, and Steer RA, "Sexually abused children suffering posttraumatic stress symptoms: Initial treatment outcome findings," Child Maltreatment vol 1(4): 310-321. 1996. doi:10.1177/1077559596001004003 SUMMARY

Deblinger E, Steer RA, and Lippmann J. "Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms," Child Abuse and Neglect vol 23(12): 1371-1378. 1999. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Donnelly CL, Amaya-Jackson L, and March JS. "Psychopharmacology of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology vol 9(3): 203-220. 1999.

Dybdahl R. "Children and mothers in war: An outcome study of a psychosocial intervention program," Child Development vol 72(4): 1214-1230. 2001. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00343

Finkelhor D and Berliner L. "Research on the treatment of sexually abused children: A review and recommendations," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 34(11): 1408-1423. 1995. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website.

Fisher PA, Ellis BH, and Chamberlain P. "Early intervention foster care: A model for preventing risk in young children who have been maltreated," Children's Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice vol 2(3): 159-182. 1999.

Fraiberg S, Adelson E, and Shapiro V. "Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to the problems of impaired mother-infant relationships," Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry vol 14(3): 387-421. 1975.

Gallo-Lopez L. "A creative play therapy approach to the group treatment of young sexually abused children." In Kaduson HG and Schaefer CE, eds, Short-term Play Therapy for Children. 269-295. New York, Guilford Press. 2000.

Goenjian AK, Pynoos RS, Karayan I, Minassian D, Najarian LM, Steinberg AM, and Fairbanks LA. "Outcome of psychotherapy among pre-adolescents after the 1988 earthquake in Armenia," American Journal of Psychiatry vol 154(4): 536-542. 1997.

Greensbauer TJ and Siegel CH. "Therapeutic approaches to posttraumatic stress disorder in infants and toddlers," Infant Mental Health Journal vol 16(4): 292-305. 1995.

Groves BM and Augustyn M. "Identification, assessment, and intervention for young traumatized children within the pediatric setting." In Osofsky JD, ed, Young Children and Trauma: Intervention and Treatment. 173-193. New York, Guilford Press. 2004. SUMMARY

Groves BM and Zuckerman B. "Interventions with parents and caregivers of children who are exposed to violence." In Osofsky JD, ed, Children in a Violent Society. 183-201. New York, Guilford Press. 1997. SUMMARY

Gully KJ. "Initial development of the Expectations Test for children: A tool to investigate social information processing," Journal of Clinical Psychology vol 56(12): 1551-1563. 2000. doi: 10.1002/1097-4679(200012)56:12<1551::AID-6>3.0.CO;2-3 SUMMARY

Kagan R. Rebuilding Attachments with Traumatized Children: Healing from Losses, Violence, Abuse, and Neglect. Binghamton, New York: Haworth Press. 2004. SUMMARY

Kassam-Adams N and Winston FK. "Predicting child PTSD: The relationship between acute stress disorder and PTSD in injured children," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 43(4): 403-411. 2004. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Kolko DJ. "Individual cognitive-behavioral treatment and family therapy for physically abused children and their offending parents: A comparison of clinical outcomes," Child Maltreatment vol 1(4): 322-342. 1996.

Layne CMl, Pynoos RS, and Cardenas J. "Wounded adolescence: School-based group psychotherapy for adolescents who sustained or witnessed violent injury." In Shafii M and Shafii SL, eds, School Violence: Assessment, Management, Prevention. 163-186. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. 2001. SUMMARY

Lieberman AF, Silverman R, and Pawl JH. "Infant-parent psychotherapy: Core concepts and current approaches." In Zeanah CH Jr, ed, The Handbook of Infant Mental Health, 2nd edition. New York, Guilford Press. 2000

Lieberman AF and Van Horn P. "Assessment and treatment of young children exposed to traumatic events." In Osofsky JD, ed, Young Children and Trauma: Intervention and Treatment. 111-138. New York, Guilford Press. 2004. SUMMARY

Luxenberg T, Spinazzola J, Hidalgo J, Hunt C, and van der Kolk B. "Complex trauma and the Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) diagnosis, part two: Treatment," Directions in Psychiatry vol 21: 395-415. 2001. Click here for a PDF version.

Marans S, Murphy R, and Berkowitz S. "Police-mental health responses to children exposed to violence: The Child Development-Community Policing Program." In Lewis M, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Comprehensive Textbook, 3rd Edition.1406-1416. Baltimore, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. 2002

March JS, Amaya-Jackson L, Murry MC, and Schulte A. "Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder following a single-incident stressor," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 37(6): 585-593. 1998.

Murphy L, Pynoos RS, and James CB. "The trauma/grief-focused group psychotherapy module of an elementary school-based violence prevention/intervention program." In Osofsky JD, ed, Children in a Violent Society. 223-255. New York, Guilford Press. 1997. SUMMARY

Pine DS and Cohen JA. "Trauma in children and adolescents: Risk and treatment of psychiatric sequelae," Biological Psychiatry vol 51(7): 519-531. 2002. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Pynoos RS and Eth S. "Special intervention programs for child witnesses to violence," Lystad M, ed, Violence in the Home: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. 193-216. New York, Brunner/Mazel. 1986. SUMMARY

Pynoos RS and Eth S. "Witness to violence: The child interview," Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry vol 25(3): 306-319. 1986. SUMMARY

Pynoos RS, Goenjian AK, and Steinberg AM. "Strategies of disaster intervention for children and adolescents." In Hobfoll SE and De Vries MW, eds, Extreme Stress and Communities: Impact and Intervention. 445-471. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1995. SUMMARY

Pynoos RS and Nader KO. "Issues in the treatment of posttraumatic stress in children and adolescents." In Wilson JP and Raphael B, eds, International Handbook of Traumatic Stress Syndromes. 535-549. New York, Plenum Press. 1993. SUMMARY

Saltzman WR, Pynoos RS, Layne CM, Steinberg AM, and Aisenberg E. "Trauma- and grief-focused intervention for adolescents exposed to community violence: Results of a school-based screening and group treatment protocol," Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice vol 5(4): 291-303. 2001. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website.

Saywitz KJ, Mannarino AP, Berliner L, and Cohen JA. "Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents," American Psychologist vol 55(9): 1040-1049. 2000. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Silverman WK, Ortiz CD, Viswesvaran C, Burns BJ, Kolko DJ, Putnam FW, Amaya-Jackson L. "Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events," Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychiatry vol 37 (1): 156-183. 2008.

Stein B, Kataoka SH, Jaycox LH, Wong M, Fink A, Escudero P, and Zaragoza C. "Theoretical basis and program design of a school-based mental health intervention for traumatized immigrant children: A collaborative research partnership," Journal of Behavioral Health Services Research vol 29(3): 318-26. 2002. doi: 10.1007/BF02287371

Stein BD, Jaycox LH, Kataoka SH, Wong M, Tu W, Elliott MN, and Fink A. "A mental health intervention for schoolchildren exposed to violence: A randomized controlled trial," Journal of the American Medical Association vol 290(5): 603-611. 2003. Click here for a link to this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Steinberg AM, Brymer MJ, Decker KB, and Pynoos RS. "The University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index," Current Psychiatry Reports vol 6(2): 96-100. 2004. doi: 10.1007/s11920-004-0048-2 SUMMARY

Werthington HR et al. "The effectiveness of interventions to reduce psychological harm from traumatic events among children and adolescents: A systematic review," American Review of Preventive Medicine vol 35 (3): 287-313. 2008.

Winston FK, Kassam-Adams N, Garcia-España F, Ittenbach R, and Cnaan A. "Screening for risk of persistent posttraumatic stress in injured children and their parents," Journal of the American Medical Association vol 290(5): 643-649. 2003. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY