Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire
1. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1996). Family-related variables and psychological symptom formation in sexually abused girls. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Vol 5(1), 105-120.
2. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1996). Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(10), 1402-1410.
The PERQ is designed to assess stressful parental emotional reactions to the sexual abuse of their children. Parents are asked to endorse the frequency of specific reactions including fear, sadness, guilt, anger, embarrassment, shame, and emotional preoccupation. The measure yields a total PERQ score.
5-point scale: 1=never, 2=rarely, 3=sometimes, 4=frequently, 5=always
|Total PERQ||I have felt upset about my child being abused.|
|I have felt responsible for my child being abused.|
|Test-Retest-# days: 14||Acceptable||0.9|
Mannarino & Cohen (1996) report internal consistency and test-retest reliability from pilot data with 50 sexually abused children aged 7-12.
Items are face valid. No details are provided regarding how they were developed.
|Validity Type||Not known||Not found||Nonclincal Samples||Clinical Samples||Diverse Samples|
Mannarino & Cohen (1996) found that PERQ scores were related to parents' perceptions of children's sexual behaviors (Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: r=.21) and behavior problems (CBCL Total: r=.21, CBCL Externalizing: r=.20, and CBCL Internalizing: r=.20).
Forbes, Duffy, Mok, & Lemvig (2003) also reported correlations between PERQ scores and CBCL total, Internalizing, and Externalizing scores (r=.48 , r=.43, and r=.38, respectively) in a sample of non-abusing parents of child victims of sexual abuse in Edinburgh, Scotland. PERQ scores have also been found to be significantly correlated with the CBCL Social Competence Scale and negatively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (Cohen & Mannarino, 2000).
In regression analyses, after accounting for intake scores, abuse-related behaviors, and demographic variables, intake PERQ scores contributed
significant variance toward the prediction of posttest CBCL internalizing, externalizing, and type of behaviors as assessed by the Weekly Behavior Report (Cohen & Mannarino, 1996).
The PERQ has been found to be sensitive to change due to treatment in a multisite randomized trial, with parents of children treated with Trauma-Focused CBT showing greater changes than parents of children treated using non-directive supportive therapy (Cohen, Deblinger, Mannarino, & Steer, 2004).
|Not Known||Not Found||Nonclinical Samples||Clinical Samples||Diverse Samples|
1. Initial psychometric properties reported are promising.
2. Data to date has been obtained on small, restricted samples, and replication of results would improve conclusions about reliability.
3. No normative data are available.
4. While studies have included significant percentages of African American and White children, more research is needed examining the reliability and validity of the measure with other ethnic groups (e.g., Latinos and Asians).
5. Additional testing of the psychometrics is being conducted by the authors and colleagues.
(Mannarino & Cohen, 1996)
Pilot data were gathered on parents of 50 sexually abused children aged 7-12. No demographic data were provided.
Psychometrics were examined with female caregivers of 77 sexually abused girls who were referred to treatment within 6 months of the most recent sexual abuse incident. Girls were aged 7-10 (M=10); 48% were African American or bi-racial. No other demographics were provided on the caregivers or girls.
(Cohen & Mannarino, 1996)
Additional research was conducted with caregivers of sexually abused children aged 2.11 to 7.1 years.
Inclusionary criteria included that the most recent sexual abuse incident occurred within 6 months of referral, sexual abuse had been reported to Child Protective Services, and the abuse had been verified.
Exclusionary criteria included “mental retardation or pervasive developmental disorder, psychotic symptoms, a serious medical illness, psychotic disorder or active substance abuse in the parent participating in treatment, or the lack of a long-term caretaker to participate in the study.”
Of 86 children who were recruited, 67 completed treatment and were included in analyses. The children averaged 4.68 years of age, 58% were girls and 42% were boys; 54% White, 42% African-American, 4% Other.
Mean SES was Hollingshead IV; 75% were with one or both biological parents, 3% lived with adoptive parents, 4% lived with grandparents, 3% lived with other relatives, 13% lived with a long-term foster parent, and 2% lived with another caregiver.
|Population Type:||Measure Used with Members of this Group||Members of this Group Studied in Peer-Reviewed Journals||Reliable||Good Psychometrics||Norms Available||Measure Developed for this Group|
|1. Parents of sexually abused children||Yes|
Pros & Cons/References
1. Domain assessed by measure has been found to be related to child outcome, independent of treatment type and pretreatment scores, suggesting that this measure assesses an important domain to target and assess during trauma treatments.
2. Measure is brief, and the wording is simple and easy to understand.
3 . Measure is free.
1. While promising, psychometric data are limited.
2. No norms or clinical cutoffs are available, which limits the extent to which scores can be interpreted.
3. While studies have included significant percentages of African American and White children, more research is needed examining the reliability and validity of the measure with other ethnic groups (e.g., Latinos and Asians).|
4. On some items, both low and high scores might also be an indication of problems, while moderate scores might reflect a healthy response (e.g., I have felt upset about my child being abused). There are multiple items where this might be the case. If true, this would affect the statistical power using traditional statistical analyses that would not account for the possible non-linear association between PERQ scores and child functioning.
A PsychInfo search (6/05) for the words “Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire” or “PSQ” anywhere revealed that the measure has been referenced in 4 peer-reviewed journal articles. In addition the PERQ was found in two other articles.
1. Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & Steer, R. A. (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.
2. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (2000). Predictors of treatment outcome in sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(7), 983-994.
3. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1998). Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children: Six- and 12-month follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(1), 44-51.
4. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1996). Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(10), 1402-1410.
5. Forbes, F., Duffy, J. C., Mok, J., & Lemvig, J. (2003). Early intervention service for nonabusing parents of victims of child sexual abuse: Pilot study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183(1), 66-72.
6. Mannarino, A. P., & Cohen, J. A. (1996). Family-related variables and psychological symptom formation in sexually abused girls. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 5(1), 105-120.