CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER MEASURES
1. Snyder et al. (1997): The CHS was found to correlate significantly with a modified parent-report version of the Children’s Hope Scale across different samples (r>.36 for all samples).
In addition, across samples, CHS scores were found to correlate significantlyand in the expected direction with scores on the five Subscales and the Global Self-Worth scale of the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Children’s Perceived Physical Efficacy Scale, the Children’s Attributional Style
Questionnaire, and the Children’s Depression Inventory. The measure was also found to be related to measures of social desirability, which the authors interpreted as adaptive coping.
The measures included the Children’s Social Desirability Questionnaire and the Lie Scale of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale.
2. Valle, Huebner, & Suldo (2004) examined the psychometrics of the CHS with a sample of 460 students aged 15-19 from two public high schools.
Ethnicity of students was 52% African American, 40% Caucasian, 2% Asian American, 1% Hispanic, 1% Native American, and 4% other ethnic background. A majority were of lower socioeconomic status, with 63% reportedly qualifying
for a free or reduced lunch.
They reported significant correlations between the CHS and scores on the Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS): r=.55, p<.01; Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASS): r=.53, p<.01; and to a lesser degree the Abbreviated Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (JEPQ-A) Extraversion score: r=.16, p<.05.
The CHS was also negatively associated with the Youth Self-Report (YSR) Externalizing (r=-.32, p<.01) and Internalizing (r=-.32, p<.01 scales), and with the JEPQ-A Neuroticism Scale (r=-.28, p<.01).
3. In a second study, Valle et al. (2004) examined the psychometrics of the CHS with 531 children aged 10-14. Ethnicity was 52% African American, 40% Caucasian, 2% Asian, 1% Hispanic, 1% Native American, and 4% other ethnic background. 58% qualified for a free or reduced lunch. Results were similar to that found in their study of older children. CHS scores were positively correlated with the SLSS (r=.49, p<.01), CASS (r=.59, p<.01), and JEPQ-A (r=.18, p<.01). CHS scores were also negatively correlating with the YSR Externalizing (r=-.33, p<.01) and Internalizing (r=-.32, p<.01)scales.
4. The CHS also correlated significantly with Optimism (r=.54, p<.0001), Pessimism (r=-.34, p<.0001), and Total Optimism (r=.47, p<.0001) scales of the Youth Life Orientation Test (Ey et al., 2005).
5. Soliday, Farofalo, & Rogers (2004) reported a similar correlation between the CHS and the Life Orientation Test (r=.57, p<.001). They also reported significant correlations with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children, Positive Affect Scale (r=.51, p<.001) and Negative Affect Scale (r=.24, p<.05), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (r=-.55, p<.001), Children’s Somatization Inventory (r=-.31, p<.05), and the Youth Self-Report Somatizing Symptoms Subscale (r=-.31, p<.05).
6. Carvajal, Evans, Nash, & Getz (2004) examined the agency and pathways scales separately in a study that examined predictors of adolescent Substance use in 525 adolescents.
Agency was significantly related to: Optimism (r=.60), measured using the Life Orientation Test; Global Positive Expectancies (r=.73); Self-Esteem (r=.58), measured using positive items from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; Attitudes regarding the negative consequence of substance abuse (r=.37); Subjective norms about using substance abuse (r=.30); Self-efficacy regarding avoiding substances (.33); Intention to use substances (.34); Substance abuse at T1, the number of times the individual used substances in the past 12 months (r=-.27);
and Substance abuse at Time 2 (r=-.234).
Pathways was significantly related to: Optimism (r=.57), Global positive expectancies (r=.80), Self-esteem (r=.55), Attitudes (r=.35), Subjective norms (r=.29), Self-efficacy (.31), Intention (.33), Substance abuse at Time 1 (r=-.26), and Substance abuse at Time 2 (r=-.23). All correlations were significant at p<.01.
1. Snyder et al. (1997): Discriminant validity was examined through correlations with the The Hopelessness Scale, which measures the degree to which children have negative expectancies about themselves and the future. The measures were negatively correlated, but correlations were not statistically significant. The measure was also found to not correlate with verbal, performance, or full-scale IQ scores assessed using the WISC-R or WISC-III.
1. In addition to the factor analysis conducted during the measure’s development (see “Content Validity”), the authors conducted factor analysis with the five samples of children described under “Population Used to Develop Measure.” The authors reported that overall items loaded on the appropriate factors (Snyder et al., 1997).
2. Valle et al. (2004) used confirmatory factor analytic procedures to test the 2-factor structure proposed by Snyder in a sample of children aged 15-19. Both the Goodness-of-Fit Index (.96) and the Comparative Fit Index (.95) provide support for the 2-factor model, but the Tucker Lewis Index (.87) did not. When compared to a single factor model, the correlated two-factor model provided better fit. They also tested the 2-factor model with a sample of children aged 10-14, with similar results. The 2-factor model again provided significant improvement in model fit over the 1-factor model.
GENDER, AGE, AND RACIAL DIFFERENCES
1. Snyder et al. (1997) reported no statistically significant differences when gender, age, or race was examined (Snyder et. al., 1997). Valle et al. (2004) had similar findings. They found no significant differences for age, and while they found significant differences for gender in one study and race (African American and Caucasian) in both studies, they reported that these differences represented very small effect sizes.
TREATMENT OUTCOME RESEARCH
1. The Children’s CHS has been used in 1 randomized trial, but it did not show significant treatment effects (Soliday et al. 2004).
USE WITH DIVERSE POPULATIONS
1. It appears that the measure was used in a study of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, but the article could not be obtained (Hui, & Ho, 2004).
1. The CHS was used in a study by Brown, Houck, Hadley, & Lescano (2005) that examined self-cutting and sexual risk behavior in a group of 293
adolescents receiving intensive psychiatric treatment. Those who engaged in Self-cutting had significantly lower CHS scores than those who did not. A significant number of children had been sexually abused.