Complex Trauma Reading List
This reading list was compiled by experts in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. It includes important recent work as well as classic books and articles on complex trauma by Network and other experts in the field.
Because most books and articles are protected by copyright law, we cannot provide copies of them or links to full text. But whenever possible, we have provided links to articles on publishers' websites, where you may be able to access the full article, depending on the publisher's policy. You can also contact your local public, medical, or university library for help if you would like to read the full publications.
Ainsworth MS, Blehar MC, and Waters E. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Oxford, England: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978.
Allen RE and Oliver JM. "The effects of child maltreatment on language development," Child Abuse and Neglect vol 6(3): 299-305. 1982. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Beeghly M and Cicchetti D. "Child maltreatment, attachment, and the self system: Emergence of an internal state lexicon in toddlers at high social risk," Development and Psychopathology vol 6: 5-30. 1994. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Beers SR and De Bellis. "Neuropsychological function in children with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder." Journal of Psychiatry. vol 159 (3): 483-486. 2002. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.483
Benes FM, Turtle M, and Khan Y. "Myelination of a key relay zone in the hippocampal formation occurs in the human brain during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood." Archives of General Psychiatry vol 51(6): 477-484. 1994. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950060041004
Bernstein EM and Putnam FW. "Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale." Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease vol 174 (12): 727-735. 1986. doi: 10.1097/00005053-198612000-00004
Bowlby J. A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. New York, Basic Books. 1988.
Cahill LT, Kaminer RK, and Johnson PG. "Developmental, cognitive, and behavioral sequelae of child abuse." Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America vol 8(4): 827-843, ix-x. 1999.
Cassidy J and Mohr JJ. "Unsolvable fear, trauma, and psychopathology: Theory, research, and clinical considerations related to disorganized attachment across the life span." Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice vol 8(3): 275-298. 2001. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.8.3.275
Champagne F and Meaney MJ. "Like mother, like daughter: Evidence for non-genomic transmission of parental behavior and stress responsivity." Progress in Brain Research vol 133: 287-302. 2001.
Chemtob CM, Tolin DF, van der Kolk BA, and Pitman RA. "Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing." In Boa EB, Keane TM, and Friedman MJ, eds, Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 139-154. New York, Guilford Press. 2000.
Chu JA. "The Repetition compulsion revisited: Reliving dissociated trauma." Psychotherapy vol 28: 327- 332. 1991. doi: 10.1037/0033-318.104.22.1687
Cicchetti D and Beeghly M. "Symbolic development in maltreated youngsters: An organizational perspective." New Directions for Child Development vol 36: 47-68. 1987. doi: 10.1002/cd.23219873605
Cicchetti D and Lynch M. "Failures in the expectable environment and their impact on individual development: The case of child maltreatment." In: D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology. vol 2: Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation: 32-71. New York, John Wiley & Sons. 1995.
Cicchetti D and Toth Sl. "A developmental psychopathology perspective on child abuse and neglect." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 34(5): 541-564. 1995. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Cloitre M, Koenen KC, Cohen LR, and Han H. "Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: A phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology vol 70: 1067-1074.2002. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.70.5.1067
Cohen JA and Mannarino AP. "Interventions for sexually abused children: Initial treatment findings." Child Maltreatment vol 3: 53-62.1998.
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Berliner L, and Deblinger E. "Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children and adolescents: An empirical update." Journal of Interpersonal Violence vol 15(11): 1202- 1223. 2000. doi: 10.1177/088626000015011007
Crittenden P. "Dangerous behavior and dangerous contexts: A 35-year perspective on research on the developmental effects of child physical abuse." In Trickett P and Schellenbach C, eds, Violence Against Children in the Family and the Community. 11-38. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 1998.
Crittenden PM and DiLalla DL. "Compulsive compliance: The development of an inhibitory coping strategy in infancy." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology vol 16(5): 585-599. 1988. doi: 10.1007/BF00914268
Culp RE et al. "Maltreated children's language and speech development: Abused, neglected, and abused, and neglected." First Language vol 11: 377-389.1991. doi: 10.1007/BF00914268
De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS, Shifflett H, Iyengar S, Beers SR, Hall J, and Moritz G. "Brain structures in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A sociodemographically matched study." Biological Psychiatry vol 52: 1066- 1078. 2002. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Deblinger E and Heflin A. Cognitive behavioral interventions for treating sexually abused children. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 1996.
Demitrack MA et al. "Relation of dissociative phenomena to levels of cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites and beta-endorphin in patients with eating disorders: A pilot study." Psychiatry Research vol 49(1): 1-10. 1993. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Dinwiddie SH et al. "Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: A co-twin-control study." Psychological Medicine vol 30(1): 41-52. 2000. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Dube SR et al. "Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from the adverse childhood experiences study." JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association vol 286(24): 3089-3096. 2001. doi:10.1001/jama.286.24.3089
Dube SR et al. "Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: Exposure to childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction." Child Abuse & Neglect vol 25(12): 1627-1640.2001. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Eckenrode J, Laird M, and Doris J. "School performance and disciplinary problems among abused and neglected children." Developmental Psychology vol 29(1): 53-62.1993. doi: 10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.124
Egeland B, Sroufe A, and Erickson M. "The developmental consequence of different patterns of maltreatment." Child Abuse & Neglect vol 7(4): 459-469. 1983. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Egeland BR, Carlson E, and Sroufe LA. "Resilience as process." Development & Psychopathology vol 5(4): Special Issue: Milestones in the development of resilience: 517-528. 1993. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Felitti VJ et al. "Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study." American Journal of Preventive Medicine vol 14(4): 245-258. 1998. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, and Lynskey Mi T. "Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: II. Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 35(10): 1365-1374. 1996. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Fergusson DM, Lynskey MT, and Horwood L J. "Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: I. Prevalence of sexual abuse and factors associated with sexual abuse." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 35(10): 1355-1364. 1996. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Finkelhor D and Kendall-Tackett K A. "A developmental perspective on the childhood impact of crime, abuse, and violent victimization." In Cicchetti D and Toth S, eds, Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology and Developmental Perspectives on Trauma vol 8: 1-32. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. 1997.
Ford JD et al. "Child maltreatment, other trauma exposure, and posttraumatic symptomatology among children with oppositional defiant and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders." Child Maltreatment vol 5(3), 205-217. 2000. doi: 10.1177/1077559500005003001
Friedrich WN. Psychological Assessment of Sexually Abused Children and Their Families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 2001.
Fromm S. "Total estimated cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States." Prevent Child Abuse America. 2001.
Gaensbauer, Mrzaek D, and Harmon R. "Emotional expression in abused and/or neglected infants." In Frude N, ed, Psychological Approaches to Child Abuse. 120-135. Totowa, NJ: Rowan and Littlefield. 1981.
Garbarino J and Kostelny K. "The effects of political violence on Palestinian children's behavior problems: A risk accumulation model." Child Development vol 67(1), 33-45. 1996. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01717.x
Garbarino J, Kostelny K, and Grady J. "Children in dangerous environments: Child maltreatment in the context of community violence." In Cicchetti D and Toth S, eds, Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy. 167-189. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation. 1993.
Gordon H W. "Early environmental stress and biological vulnerability to drug abuse." Psychoneuroendocrinology vol 27(1-2), Special Issue: Stress and drug abuse: 115-126. 2002. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Greenwald R. "Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): New hope for children suffering from trauma and loss." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry vol 3(2): 279-287. 1998. doi: 10.1177/1359104598032010
Gunnar MR and Donzella B. "Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development." Psychoneuroendocrinology vol 27(1-2), Special Issue: Stress and drug abuse: 199-220. 2002. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Hembree-Kigin TL and McNeil CB. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. New York, Plenum Press.1995.
Herman JL. "Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma." Journal of Traumatic Stress vol 5(3): 377-391. 1992. doi: 10.1007/BF00977235
Herman JL, Perry JC, and van der Kolk BA. "Childhood trauma in Borderline Personality Disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry vol 146: 490-495. 1989.
James B. Treating Traumatized Children: New Insights and Creative Interventions. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Com. 1989.
James B. Handbook for Treatment of Attachment-Trauma Problems in Children. New York, Maxwell Macmillan International. 1994.
Kagan J. Surprise, Uncertainty, and Mental Structures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2003.
Kagan R. Rebuilding Attachments with Traumatized Children: Healing from Losses, Violence, Abuse, and Neglect. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press. 2004.
Kaufman J, Plotsky PM, Nemeroff CB, and Charney DS. "Effects of early adverse experiences on brain structure and function: Clinical implications." Biological Psychiatry vol 48: 778-790. 2000. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Kendall-Tackett K A, Williams LM, and Finkelhor D. "Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies." Psychological Bulletin vol 113(1): 164-180. 1993.
Kurtz PD, Gaudin JM, Wodarski JS, and Howing PT. "Maltreatment and the school-aged child: School performance consequences." Child Abuse & Neglect vol 17: 581-589. 1993. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Leiter J and Johnsen MC. "Child maltreatment and school performance." American Journal of Education vol 102: 154-189. 1994.
Lieberman AF, Van Horn P, Grandison CM, and Pekarsky JH. "Mental health assessment of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers in a service program and a treatment outcome research program." Infant Mental Health Journal vol 18(2): 158-170. 1997. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0355(199722)18:2<158::AID-IMHJ5>3.0.CO;2-L
Liem JH and Boudewyn AC. "Contextualizing the effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult self and social functioning: An attachment theory perspective." Child Abuse & Neglect vol 23(11): 1141-1157. 1999. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Loo CM, Fairbank JA, Scurfield R, Ruch LO, King DW, Adams LJ, and Chemtob CM. "Measuring exposure to racism: Development and validation of a Race-Related Stressor Scale (RRSS) for Asian American Vietnam veterans." Psychological Assessment vol 13(4): 503-520. 2001. doi: 10.1037/1040-35126.96.36.1993
Luthar SS, Cicchetti D, and Becker B. "The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work." Child Development vol 71(3): 543-562. 2000. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00164
Lyons-Ruth K and Jacobovitz D. "Attachment disorganization: Unresolved loss, relational violence, and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies." In: Cassidy J and Shaver PR, eds, Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Application. 520-554. New York, 1999.
Manson SM. "The wounded spirit: A cultural formulation of posttraumatic stress disorder." Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry vol 20(4): 489-498. 1996. doi: 10.1007/BF00117089
Margolin G and Gordis EB. "The effects of family and community violence on children." Annual Review of Psychology. vol 51: 445-479. 2000. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.445
Marsella AJ, Friedman MJ, Gerrity ET, and Scurfield RM, eds. Ethnocultural Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues, Research, and Clinical Applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 1996.
Masten AS. "Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development." American Psychologist. vol 56 (3): 227- 238. 2001. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.227
Masten AS and Coatsworth JD. "The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research of successful children." American Psychologist vol 53 (2): 205-220. 1998. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Maunder RG and Hunter JJ. "Attachment and psychosomatic medicine: Developmental contributions to stress and disease." Psychosomatic Medicine vol 63(4): 556-567. 2001.
Mezzacappa E, Kindlon D, and Earls F. "Child abuse and performance task assessments of executive functions in boys." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines vol 42(8): 1041-1048. 2001.
Miller TW, ed. Children of Trauma: Stressful Life Events and Their Effects on Children and Adolescents. Madison, CT: International Universities Press. 1998.
Nelson EC et al. "Association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychosocial outcomes: Results from a twin study." Archives of General Psychiatry vol 59 (2): 139-146. 2002. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Ohan JL, Myers K, and Collett BR. "Ten-year review of rating scales. IV: Scales assessing trauma and its effects." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 41(2): 1401-1422. 2002.
Parson ER. "Posttraumatic child therapy (P-TCT): Assessment and treatment factors in clinical work with inner-city children exposed to catastrophic community violence." Journal of Interpersonal Violence vol 12: 172-194. 1997.
Pearce JW and Pezzot-Pearce TD. Psychotherapy of Abused and Neglected Children. New York, Guilford Press. 1997.
Pelcovitz D, van der Kolk BA, Roth SH, Mandel FS, Kaplan SJ, and Resick PA. "Development of a criteria set and a structured interview for disorders of extreme stress (SIDES)." Journal of Traumatic Stress vol 10(1): 3- 16. 1997. doi: 10.1023/A:1024800212070
Perry BD and Pollard R. "Homeostasis, stress, trauma, and adaptation: A neurodevelopmental view of childhood trauma." Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America vol 7(1): 33-51. 1998.
Putnam F. "Dissociative disorders in children: Behavioral profiles and problems." Child Abuse and Neglect vol 17(1): 39-45. 1993. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Putnam FW. Dissociation in Children and Adolescents: A Developmental Perspective. New York, Guilford Press. 1997.
Putnam FW. "Ten-year research update review: Child sexual abuse." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 43: 269-278. 2003. doi: 10.1097/01.CHI.0000037029.04952.72
Rabalais AE, Ruggiero KJ, and Scotti JR. "Multicultural issues in the response of children to disasters." In La Greca AM et al., eds, Helping Children Cope with Disasters and Terrorism.73-99. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2002.
Rivard JC, Bloom SL, Abramovitz R, Pasquale LE, Duncan M, McCorkle D, and Gelman A. "Assessing the implementation and effects of a trauma-focused intervention for youths in residential treatment." Psychiatric Quarterly vol 74 (2): 137-154. 2003. doi: 10.1023/A:1021355727114
Salmon K and Bryant RA. "Posttraumatic stress disorder in children: The influence of developmental factors." Clinical Psychology Review vol 22 (2): 163-188. 2002. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Sandgrund A, Gaines RW, and Green AH. "Child abuse and mental retardation: A problem of cause and effect." American Journal of Mental Deficiency vol 79: 327-330. 1974.
Schneider-Rosen K and Cicchetti D. "Early self-knowledge and emotional development: Visual self recognition and affective reactions to mirror self-images in maltreated and non-maltreated toddlers." Developmental Psychology. vol 27: 471-478. 1991. doi: 10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.521
Schore AN. "Advances in neuropsychoanalysis, attachment theory, and trauma research: Implications for self-psychology." Psychoanalytic Inquiry vol 22(3):433-484. 2002.
Schore AN. "The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health." In Schore AN, Affect Dysregulation and Disorders of the Self. New York, Norton. 2003.
Sedlak A and Broadhurst D. "Executive summary of the third national incidence study of child abuse and neglect (NIS-3)." National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1996.
Shonk SM and Cicchetti D. "Maltreatment, competency deficits, and risk for academic and behavioral maladjustment." Developmental Psychology vol 37(1): 3-17. 2001. doi: 10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.206
Siegel DJ. The Developing Mind: Toward a Neurobiology of Interpersonal Experience. New York, Guilford Press. 1999.
Silva RR, Cloitre M, Davis L, Levitt J, Gomez S, Ngai I, and Brown EJ. "Early intervention with traumatized children." Psychiatric Quarterly vol 74(4): 333-347. 2003. doi: 10.1023/A:1026035426446
Simpson TL and Miller WR. "Concomitance between childhood sexual and physical abuse and substance use problems: A review." Clinical Psychology Review vol 22 (1): 27-77. 1997. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Stein MB et al. "Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse." Psychological Medicine vol 27(4): 951-959. 2002. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Teicher MH, Andersen SL, and Polcari, A. "Developmental neurobiology of childhood stress and trauma." Psychiatric Clinics of North America vol 25 (2): 397-426. 2002.
Trickett P, McBride-Chang C, and Putnam F. "The classroom performance and behavior of sexually abused females." Development & Psychopathology vol 6: 183-194. 1994. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Turner K, DeRosa RR, Roth SH, Batson R, and Davidson JRT. "A multi-modal treatment for incest survivors: preliminary outcome data." Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy vol 3(3): 208-219. 1996. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(199609)3:3<208::AID-CPP103>3.0.CO;2-R
Vaillant GE. "Ego mechanisms of defense and personality psychopathology." Journal of Abnormal Psychology vol 103(1): 44-50. 1994. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.103.1.44
Vaillant GE, Bond M, and Vaillant CO. "An empirically validated hierarchy of defense mechanisms." Archives of General Psychiatry vol 43(8): 786-794. 1986. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800080072010
van der Kolk BA. "The neurobiology of childhood trauma and abuse." Child and Adolescent Clinics of North America vol 12(2): 293-317. 2003.
van der Kolk BA, Pelcovitz D, Roth S, Mandel F, McFarlane AC, and Herman J."Dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation: The complexity of adaptation to trauma." American Journal of Psychiatry vol 153 (7 Festschrift Supplement): 83-93. 1996.
van der Kolk BA, van der Hart O, and Marmar C. "Dissociation and information processing in PTSD." In van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, and Weisaeth L, eds, Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York, Guilford Press. 1996.
Vondra J, Barnett D, and Cicchetti D. "Perceived and actual competence among maltreated and comparison school children." Development & Psychopathology vol 1: 237-255. 1989. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Vondra JI, Barnett D, and Cicchetti D. "Self-concept, motivation, and competence among preschoolers from maltreating and comparison families." Child Abuse and Neglect vol 14 (4): 525-540. 1990. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Waller MA. "Resilience in ecosystemic context: evolution of the concept." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry vol 71 (3): 290-297. 2001. doi: 10.1037/0002-94220.127.116.110
Weiss DS, Marmar CR, Metzler TJ, and Ronfeldt HM. "Predicting symptomatic distress in emergency services personnel." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology vol 63(3): 361-368. 1995. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.63.3.361
Werner EE and Smith RS. Overcoming the Odds: High-Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1992.
Wiehe VR. "Approaching child abuse treatment from the perspective of empathy." Child Abuse and Neglect vol 21(12): 1191-1204. 1997. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.
Winston FK, Kassam-Adams N, Vivarelli-O'Neil C, Ford JD, Newman E, Baxt C, Stafford P, and Cnaan A. "Acute stress disorder in children and their parents after pediatric traffic injury." Pediatrics vol 109(6):90. 2002. doi: 10.1542/peds.109.6.e90
Wyman PA, Sandler I, Wolchik S, and Nelson K. "Resilience as cumulative competence promotion and stress protection: theory and intervention." In Cicchetti D ed, The Promotion of Wellness in Children and Adolescents. 133-184. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America. 2000.
Yehuda R, Spertus IL, and Golier JA. "Relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and PTSD in adults." In Eth S, ed, PTSD in Children and Adolescents. 117-158. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. 2001.
Zlotnick C, Ryan CE, Miller IW, and Keitner GI. "Childhood abuse and recovery from major depression." Child Abuse and Neglect vol 19 (12): 1513-1516. 1995. Click here to link to this article on the publisher's website.