Early Childhood Trauma Reading List

This reading list was compiled by experts in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. It includes important recent work as well as classic books and articles on assessment and treatment of trauma in young children by Network and other experts in the field.

Because most books and articles are protected by copyright law, we cannot provide copies of them or links to full text. But whenever possible, we have provided links to articles on publishers' websites, where you may be able to access the full article, depending on the publisher's policy. You can also contact your local public, medical, or university library for help if you would like to read the full publications.

Blank, M. K. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. British Columbia Medical Journal, 49(3), 133-138.

Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2006). Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 18(3), 623-650. doi: 10.1017/S0954579406060329

Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & Steer, R. (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402. 

Deblinger, E., Stauffer, L. B., & Steer, R. A. (2001). Comparative efficacies of supportive and cognitive behavioral group therapies for young children who have been sexually abused and their non-offending mothers. Child Maltreatment, 6(4), 332-343. doi: 10.1177/1077559501006004006 

Groves, B. (2003). Children who see too much: Lessons from the Child Witness to Violence Project. Boston: Beacon Press.

Groves, B. (2007). Early intervention as prevention: Addressing trauma in young children. Focal Point: Research, Policy and Practice in Children's Mental Health, 21(1), 16-18.

Hartman, R. R., Stage, S. A., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2002). A growth curve analysis of parent training outcomes: Examining the influence of child risk factors (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity problems), parental and family risk factors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(3), 388-398. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00129

Larrieu, J. A. (2002). Treating infant-parent relationships in the context of maltreatment: Repairing ruptures of trust. Zero to Three, 22(5), 16-22.

Larrieu, J. A., & Bellow, S. (2007). Relationship assessment of young traumatized children. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Young children and trauma: Intervention and treatment (pp. 155-172). New York: Guilford Press.

Larrieu, J., & Valliere, J. (1999). A relationship-focused approach to permanency decisions. Zero to Three, 19(3), 31-32.

Lewis, M., & Ghosh-Ippen, C. (2007). Rainbow of tears, souls full of hope: Cultural issues related to young children and trauma. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Young children and trauma: Intervention and treatment (pp. 11-46). New York: Guilford Press.

Lieberman, A. F. (2004). Traumatic stress and quality of attachment: Reality and internalization in disorders of infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 25(4), 336-351. doi: 10.1002/imhj.20009

Lieberman, A. F., Compton, N., Van Horn, P., & Ghosh-Ippen, C. (2003). Losing a parent to death in the early years: Guidelines for the treatment of traumatic bereavement in infancy and early childhood. Washington, DC: Zero to Three Press.

Lieberman, A. F., & Van Horn, P. (2005). Don't hit my mommy! A manual for Child-Parent Psychotherapy with young witnesses of family violence. Washington, DC: Zero to Three Press.

Lieberman, A. F., Van Horn, P., & Ippen, C. G. (2005). Toward evidence-based treatment: Child-Parent Psychotherapy with preschoolers exposed to marital violence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(12), 1241-1248.

Meiser-Stedman, R., Smith, P., Glucksman, E., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (2008). The PTSD diagnosis in preschool- and elementary school-age children exposed to motor vehicle accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(10), 1326-1337. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081282

Osofsky, J. D. (Ed.). (1998). Children in a violent society. New York: Guilford Press.

Osofsky, J. D. (Ed.). (2007). Young children and trauma: Interventions and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.

Osofsky, J. D., & Fenichel, E. (1994). Caring for infants and toddlers in violent environments: Hurt, healing and hope. Washington, DC: Zero to Three Press.

Osofsky, J. D., & Fenichel, E. (1996). Islands of safety: Assessing and treating young victims of violence. Washington, DC: Zero to Three Press.

Scheeringa, M. S. (1999). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in infants and toddlers. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 18(2), 20-31.

Scheeringa, M. S. (2008). Developmental considerations for diagnosing PTSD and Acute Stress Disorder in preschool and school-age children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(10), 1237-1239. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08070974

Scheeringa, M. S., Wright, M. J., Hunt, J. P., & Zeanah, C. H. (2006). Factors affecting the diagnosis and prediction of PTSD symptomatology in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 644-651. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.4.644

Scheeringa, M. S., & Zeanah, C. H. (2001). A relational perspective on PTSD in early childhood. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(4), 799-815. doi: 10.1023/A:1013002507972

Stover, C. S., & Berkowitz, S. (2005). Assessing violence exposure and trauma symptoms in young children: A critical review of measures. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 707-717. doi: 10.1002/jts.20079

Zeanah, C. H., & Larrieu, J. A. (1998). Intensive intervention for maltreated infants and toddlers in foster care. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7(2), 357-371.

Zeanah, C. H., & Zeanah, P. D. (2001). Towards a definition of infant mental health. Zero to Three, 22(1), 13-20.