Human Trafficking Awareness Month (January 2016)

01/2016

In support of Human Trafficking Awareness Month, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) has resources for mental health professionals, law enforcement personnel, health care professionals, and survivors on the signs of trafficking and services for human trafficking survivors.

The following resources provide information on human trafficking and on how to best serve those affected and their communities.

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The 12 Core Concepts for Understanding Traumatic Stress Responses in Children and Families — Adapted for Youth who are Trafficked

Trafficking involves circumstances (such as exploitation and coercion) that youth experience as traumatic (violating or threatening); therefore, youth who have been trafficked may exhibit responses to child traumatic stress.

The 12 Core Concepts for Understanding Traumatic Stress Responses in Children and Families provide a rationale for trauma-informed assessment and intervention. The Concepts cover a broad range of points that practitioners and agencies should consider as they strive to assess, understand, and assist trauma-exposed children, families, and communities in trauma-informed ways.

1. Traumatic experiences are inherently complex.—Every traumatic event is made up of different traumatic moments. These moments may include varying degrees of objective life threat, physical violation, and witnessing of injury or death. The moment-to-moment reactions youth have to these individual events are even more complex due to limitations in appraising and responding to danger, safety, and protection. When youth are sold for sex or labor, they constantly receive information that they must weigh and react to quickly. Thoughts come quickly and continuously: “What do I need to do to survive this? What’s worse, if he rapes me or kills me? If I don’t do what they say, what will they do to me? If I don’t do this, will my ‘boyfriend’ will be angry?”

2. Trauma occurs within a broad context that includes youth's personal characteristics, life experiences, and current circumstances.—Early interpersonal trauma may make youth more vulnerable to trafficking, teaching them not to trust others and to survive by any means necessary even if that involves further maltreatment. How they deal with, respond to, and cope with these situations stems from their current experience (e.g., a strong bond with the trafficker), the accumulation of their past experiences (e.g., childhood sexual abuse, domestic violence), and temperament as well as their physical, familial, community, and cultural environments.

3. Traumatic events often generate secondary adversities, life changes, and distressing reminders in youth's daily lives.—Some trafficked youth cannot escape a constant flood of painful and demoralizing reminders of past traumatic events or moments. Reminders can be anything that a youth associates with a traumatic experience (i.e., smell of alcohol, cologne, or sweat, certain locations) whether large or small, obvious or unknown. Reminders occur when least expected and youth may react with avoidance, numbing, hypervigilance, re-experiencing, or other responses. Traumatic events often generate secondary adversities such as social stigma, ongoing treatment for injuries, and legal proceedings. These adversities coupled with trauma reminders and loss reminders may produce significant fluctuations in a youth’s emotional and behavioral functioning.

4. Youth can exhibit a wide range of reactions to trauma and loss.—Due to past or on-going trauma, youth may respond to everyday challenges with rage, aggression, defiance, recklessness, or by bonding with aggressors. Others may withdraw, emotionally shut down, dissociate, self-harm, or self-medicate.

5. Danger and safety are primary concerns in the lives of youth who have had traumatic experiences.—Trafficked youth may believe that no person, relationship, or place can ever be safe or trustworthy. Continual exposure to traumatic experiences can make it more difficult for youth to distinguish between safe and unsafe situations, and may lead to significant changes in their own protective and risk-taking behavior.

6. Traumatic experiences affect the family and broader caregiving system.—Parents, caregivers, family members, and friends may want to help a youth who has been trafficked, but they may not know how to regain the youth’s trust or how to help the youth envision a life that doesn’t involve being trafficked.

7. Protective and promotive factors can reduce the adverse impact of trauma.—Supportive adults and communities, strong social connections, positive mentors, high self-esteem, and good coping skills can buffer the effects of trauma experienced by trafficked youth. When given the opportunity, many trafficked youth demonstrate remarkable resilience and enormous capacity to heal.

8. Trauma and post-trauma adversities can strongly influence development.—Trafficked youth may have had many interruptions and iterference in their childhood (eg.g, innocence, playfulness, creativity) and adolescence (e.g., autonomy, intimacy, self-definition)  causing a disruption in healthy development.

9. Developmental neurobiology underlies youth's reactions to traumatic experiences.—Trafficked youth may develop “survival brain”—an automatic focus on anticipating or counteracting danger rather than letting down their guard—especially when life seems safe (the times when they have most often been blindsided by victimizers).

10. Culture is closely interwoven with traumatic experiences, responses, and recovery.—Every trafficked youth has a unique set of past and current cultural experiences, values, beliefs, and expectations. Youth may feel conflicted with by divided loyalties when cultures clash.

11. Challenges to the social contract, including legal and ethical issues, affect trauma response and recovery.— Trafficked youth may have lost hope that society, especially people with power (such as law enforcement or judicial professionals) will fulfill their societal mandate to protect and help them. Vulnerable to criminalization, stigmatization, and victimization, youth often resist and are distrustful of the authority of those they perceive as unwilling and unable to help.  Some of the distrust is due to the instances in the past when these systems have failed them.

12. Working with trauma-exposed youth and their families can be extremely rewarding.—Adults who come to know trafficked youth in the course of providing them with services may be deeply affected by hearing about the tragedy and horror of these youths’ experiences. It is imperative for these adults to take care of their own emotional and physical health in order to be able to thoughtfully and consistently helpful to trafficked youth.

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Featured NCTSN Resources

Assisting Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth in the Juvenile Justice System
This webinar gives an overview of current issues and challenges for law enforcement and the juvenile justice system in assisting children and adolescents who face commercial sexual exploitation. The presenters discuss promising approaches and models currently used in New York, California, and other communities to identify, intervene with, and support this vulnerable population. Presenters emphasize practical tips and resources to assist law enforcement and juvenile justice professionals in supporting their communities’ efforts to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children.


Facts for Policymakers: Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Youth (2015) (PDF)
This 5-page policy brief discusses a study comparing the types of trauma exposure, trauma-related symptomatology, functional impairments, and problem behaviors of a clinical CSEC cohort (defined as youth in the CDC who reported involvement in prostitution) with a clinical group of youth who had no reported involvement in prostitution, but had a history of sexual abuse/assault.

Mental Health Interventions for Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth
This webinar presents the current status of mental health assessment, intervention and prevention for commercially sexually exploited youth, and future steps for improving mental health services for this population. During the presentation, first person reflections on the trafficking experience and insights for professionals working with trafficked youth will be provided by a formerly-trafficked young adult advocate.

Polyvictimization and Sexual Exploitation of Young Girls and Women Webinar
In this webinar Lisa Goldblatt-Grace defines CSEC and describes the scope of the problem of the commercial sexual exploitation of both girls and young women in the US. Through case examples, the presenter describes how childhood sexual abuse and other early traumas can increase risk for CSEC and complicate efforts at engagement and treatment.

Polyvictimization and Sexual Exploitation of Young Boys and Men Webinar
In this webinar Stephen Procopio discusses polyvictimization as it relates to the commercial sexual exploitation of boys and adolescent males. He describes unique issues for both runaway and "throwaway" youth, as well as implications for contracting HIV.

Responding To the Complex Issues of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Child Welfare  
This webinar will provide an overview of current issues, challenges, and emerging practices facing child welfare jurisdictions across the country as it relates to children who have experienced commercial sexual exploitation. Representatives from San Diego, CA and the state of Rhode Island will discuss how their agency/jurisdiction identifies, intervenes, addresses safety, and works to prevent CSEC. Law enforcement will also provide a valuable perspective that focuses on cross system collaboration for identification and treatment of CSEC, as well as victim advocacy.

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For Clinicians and Mental Health Professionals

Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking (ATEST)
The Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking (ATEST) is a coalition of US-based human rights organizations working to end modern-day slavery and human trafficking in the United States and around the world. Members advocate for lasting solutions to labor and sex trafficking, hold perpetrators accountable, ensure justice for victims, and empower survivors with tools for recovery.

The Ark of Hope for Children
The Ark of Hope is a non-profit, faith-based organization that provides advocacy and services for survivors of child sex trafficking and their families, including live web-based chats, rehabilitation-focused facilities for trafficking survivors, and training for providers.

CAASE—Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation
CAASE addresses the culture, institutions, and individuals that perpetrate, profit from, or support sexual exploitation. Their work includes prevention, policy reform, community engagement, and legal services. They have developed toolkits and resources for nonprofits, faith-based groups, schools, businesses, feminist groups, and other communities and individuals.

Children of the Night
Children of the Night provides a home for child prostitutes throughout the United States and is ready and able—through the Children of the Night 24-hour hotline—to rescue these children 24 hours a day. Children of the Night provides free taxi/airline transportation nationwide for children who wish to escape prostitution and live in the home, which features an on-site school and college placement program. The hotline staff work closely with law enforcement to rescue children from dominating pimps. After youngsters complete the rigorous, comprehensive program of academic and life-skills education, caseworkers provide ongoing case management.

Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking
The Coalition to Abolish Slavery & Trafficking (CAST) was established in 1998 following the El Monte sweatshop case in which 72 Thai garment workers were kept for eight years in slavery and debt bondage. The mission of CAST, a not-for-profit organization, is to assist persons trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and slavery-related practices and to work toward ending all instances of such violations of human rights.

Courtney’s House
Courtney's House was founded in 2008 by Tina Frundt, a survivor of domestic sex trafficking. Courtney’s House searches for children who are being forced into prostitution on the streets, in brothels, in strip clubs, private homes, and hotels. It brings rescued children into a safe environment “where they and their families can heal, recover, and develop hopeful, dignified, and influential lives.” Survivors of sex trafficking can receive survivor-focused, trauma-informed, holistic services including a needs assessment, individual and group therapy, parental support, and “help to recover their own voices” and “pass on their own keys to success.” Courtney’s House trains community officials and creates awareness of sex trafficking in neighborhoods across the US.

Covenant House
Covenant House was founded in 1972 with the mission to help homeless kids escape the streets. Today they are the largest privately funded charity in the Americas providing loving care and vital services to homeless, abandoned, abused, trafficked, and exploited youth. Their “Continuum of Care” is comprised of a wide array of in-house training programs, including healthcare, educational support, GED preparation, job readiness and skills training, drug abuse treatment and prevention, legal services, mental health services, the Mother/Child program, life skills training, and aftercare. These programs provide youth with a holistic approach to leaving the streets and achieving independence.

Department of Health and Human Services Blue Campaign
In 2010, DHS launched the DHD Blue Campaign, unifying DHS components to more effectively combat human trafficking through enhanced public awareness, training, victim assistance, and law enforcement investigations. By expanding collaboration within the department, as well as among domestic and international governments, law enforcement, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, DHS is helping to stop trafficking within the United States and throughout the world.

ECPAT USA
ECPAT was created in 1991 by a group of NGO workers and other concerned individuals in Asia to End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism. They work to protect children who are sexually exploited by Americans abroad, children trafficked to the US from other countries, and American children trafficked and exploited within the US. ECPAT has expanded its scope beyond tourism to encompass child pornography and the prostitution of children within all countries.

GEMS
Girls Educational & Mentoring Services (GEMS) is the only organization in New York State specifically designed to serve girls and young women who have experienced commercial sexual exploitation and domestic trafficking. Founded in 1998 by Rachel Lloyd, who had been sexually exploited as a teenager, GEMS has helped hundreds of girls and young women, ages 12–24, to exit the commercial sex industry and develop their potential. GEMS provides young women with empathetic, consistent support, and viable opportunities for positive change.

Institute of Medicine (IOM)
The Institute of Medicine is an independent, nonprofit organization that works outside government to provide unbiased and authoritative advice to decision makers and the public.  


MISSSEY: Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting, and Serving Sexually Exploited Youth

MISSSEY is a community-based organization in Alameda County, CA, founded in 2007 to provide comprehensive services to commercially sexually exploited youth in a safe environment and to work for systemic and community change to prevent such exploitation through public awareness, education, and policy development.

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC)

The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children opened in 1984 to serve as the nation’s clearinghouse on issues related to missing and sexually exploited children. NCMEC provides services, resources, and technical assistance to child victims of abduction and sexual exploitation, their families, and the professionals who serve them.

The National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline at Polaris Project
A resource of Polaris Project (see below), the hotline is a national, toll-free, bi-lingual hotline, available to answer calls and texts from anywhere in the country, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, where callers can report a tip, connect with anti-trafficking services in your area, or request training, technical assistance, general information or specific anti-trafficking resources. Call 1-888-373-7888 or text BeFree (233733).


National Resource Center for Permanency and Family Connections
The National Resource Center for Permanency and Family Connections is a training, technical assistance, and information services organization dedicated to help strengthen the capacity of State, local, Tribal, and other publicly administered or supported child welfare agencies to: institutionalize a safety-focused, family-centered, and community-based approach to meet the needs of children, youth and families. Their webpage, Trafficked and Exploited Children and Youth, provides links to resources, services, evidenced based treatments, and trainings.

Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
The Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons was created by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, which secured the guarantees of freedom from modern slavery and involuntary servitude. The Office leads the United States’ global engagement in the fight against human trafficking, partnering with foreign governments and civil society to develop and implement effective strategies for confronting modern slavery. The Office has responsibility for bilateral and multilateral diplomacy, targeted foreign assistance, and public engagement on trafficking in persons.

Polaris Project
Polaris Project is a leading organization in the global fight against human trafficking and modern-day slavery. Named after the North Star "Polaris" that guided slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project is transforming the way that individuals and communities respond to human trafficking, in the US and globally. By successfully pushing for stronger federal and state laws, operating the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline (see above), conducting trainings, and providing vital services to victims of trafficking, Polaris Project creates long-term solutions that move our society closer to a world without slavery.

Rights 4 Girls
Rights4Girls is a human rights organization focused on gender-based violence and its impact on vulnerable young women and girls in the US. Rights4Girls achieves policy change through education, engagement, and building a human rights movement for girls with other US human rights, women’s rights, child welfare, and criminal justice organizations. Rights4Girls works to ensure that all victims of trafficking can receive the same support systems and opportunities to heal.

Support to End Exploitation Now (SEEN)
The Support to End Exploitation Now (SEEN) is a ground-breaking partnership among more than 35 public and private agencies who believe that only genuine collaboration can yield positive outcomes for exploited youth.

Shared Hope International
Shared Hope International was founded in 1998 when US Congresswoman Linda Smith traveled to the brothel district in Mumbai, India where she witnessed the brutal exploitation and sexual slavery of women and children. Shared Hope International strives to prevent the conditions that foster sex trafficking, restore victims of sex slavery, and bring justice to vulnerable women and children. Shared Hope envisions a world passionately opposed to sex trafficking and a committed community restoring survivors to lives of purpose, value, and choice one life at a time.

U.S. Department of Justice

  • Evaluation of Services for Minors Exposed to Trafficking (2015) (PDF)
    The evaluation describes young people served by the programs,their service needs, services delivered by the programs, the experiences of young people and staff with the programs, and programs’ efforts to strengthen community response to
    trafficked youth.

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For Educators

The National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline at Polaris Project

Safe Supportive Learning
The National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments (NCSSLE) is funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Safe and Healthy Students to help address conditions that affect learning like bullying, violence, and substance abuse.

  • Human Trafficking in American Schools (2015)(PDF)
    This guide was developed to help school officials understand how human trafficking impacts schools, recognize the indicators of possible child trafficking, and develop policies, protocols, and partnerships to address and prevent the exploitation of children.

U.S. Department of Education

 
For Law Enforcement and Judicial Personnel 

Center for Court Innovation
Center for Court Innovation seeks to aid victims, reduce crime, strengthen neighborhoods, reduce incarceration, and improve public trust in justice.

The Child Trafficking Resource Project: Criminal Law
The Child Trafficking Resource Project (CTRP) is part of the Child Trafficking Outreach Initiative at the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST), created to increase identification of child trafficking survivors in the Los Angeles Area. Child trafficking is an under-identified crime in Los Angeles and throughout the United States.

The Child Trafficking Resource Project: Civil Litigation
The Child Trafficking Resource Project: Immigration
The Child Trafficking Resource Project: Legal Service Providers

Human Trafficking and the State Courts Collaborative
The collaborative is a joint effort of some of the nation’s most respected state court support and education organizations sponsored by the State Justice Institute in an effort to address human trafficking in the state courts.   

  • A Guide to Human Trafficking for State Courts
    The Guide is intended to support the efforts of courts not only in their traditional role of independent adjudicators, but also in their role as justice system and community leaders.   

Institute of Medicine (IOM)
The Institute of Medicine is an independent, nonprofit organization that works outside government to provide unbiased and authoritative advice to decision makers and the public.  


The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children Child—Sex Trafficking Team

National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
The National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (NCJFCJ) works to ensure justice for every family and every child in every court throughout this country.

The National Human Trafficking Resource Center at Polaris Project

The US Department of Justice
The Department of Justice is deeply committed to combating labor trafficking, assisting its victims, and prosecuting its perpetrators. DOJ states that their human trafficking enforcement programs—specifically the labor trafficking program—have never been stronger.

US Laws on Trafficking in Persons

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For Primary Health Care and Other Child Serving Professionals

American Medical Woman’s Association (AMWA)
AMWA membership is comprised of physicians, residents, medical students, and health care professionals. AMWA is the only multispecialty organization dedicated to advancing women in medicine and improving women’s health.  

The American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children
The American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, founded in 1987, is a nonprofit national organization created to meet the needs of professionals engaged in all aspects of services for maltreated children and their families. Especially important to APSAC is the dissemination of state-of-the-art practice in all professional disciplines related to child abuse and neglect.

Center for the Human Rights of Children
Loyola’s Center for the Human Rights of Children represents, coordinates, and stimulates efforts to understand, protect, and apply the human rights of children. The Center’s handbook Building Child Welfare Response to Child Trafficking provides policies, protocols, and forms for incorporating child trafficking identification and response mechanisms into state and private child welfare systems, using Illinois as a case study.

Child Welfare Information Gateway
Child Welfare Information Gateway promotes the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, youth, and families by connecting child welfare, adoption, and related professionals as well as the public to information, resources, and tools covering topics on child welfare, child abuse and neglect, out-of-home care, adoption, and more.

  • Child Welfare and Human Trafficking (2015) (PDF)
    This issue brief provides a broad overview of the crossover between the child welfare field and the work currently being done to prevent and respond to human trafficking of children and youth in the United States.

Family and Youth Services Bureau

The Family Youth Services Bureau and its National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth work to end youth homelessness, teen pregnancy, and family violence.

Institute of Medicine (IOM)
The Institute of Medicine is an independent, nonprofit organization that works outside government to provide unbiased and authoritative advice to decision makers and the public.  

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children—Social Services Indicator Card
Indicators on the card help you identify possible child victims of sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.

National Center for Youth Law
The National Center for Youth Law (NCYL) is a national, non-profit organization that uses  the law to improve the lives of poor children. NCYL works to ensure that low-income children have the resources, support, and opportunities they need for a healthy and productive future.

The National Human Trafficking Resource Center at Polaris Project

Polaris Project Medical Assessment Tool
The flow chart gives providers lists of medical signs to look for when assessing potential human trafficking victims.

Polaris Project—Comprehensive Human Trafficking Assessment
This assessment tool contains questions helpful in assessing a client for potential signs that she/he has been a victim of human trafficking.

Shared Hope International National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
Shared Hope synthesizes 10 field assessments conducted in targeted locations in the United States, providing a comprehensive understanding of child sex trafficking across America. The report addresses the proper identification of children, treatment and care, and criminalization of buyers.

US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) Guidance to States and Services on Addressing Human Trafficking of Children and Youth in the United States
The 16-page report presents guidance to states and service programs, based on current research and emerging practices, in order to elevate the issue of human trafficking within child welfare systems and runaway and homeless youth programs.

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For Policy Makers

Congressional Research Service
CRS serves the Congress throughout the legislative process by providing comprehensive and reliable legislative research and analysis that is timely, objective, authoritative, and confidential, thereby contributing to an informed national legislature.

HEAL Trafficking
HEAL is an independent, interdisciplinary network of health professionals working to combat human trafficking. HEAL serves as a centralized resource on health for the broader anti-trafficking community. Network members come together to share best practices, expand the evidence base on human trafficking and health, and unify our efforts. HEALS aim is to bring a public health perspective to multi-system approaches to human trafficking at the local, state, federal, and international levels.

Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

Office of Refugee Settlement (ORR)
The Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) provides new populations with the opportunity to maximize their potential in the United States.

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For Survivors

The Ark of Hope for Children

CAST—Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking

Courtney’s House

Covenant House

FAIR Girls
FAIR Girls provides emergency response services and compassionate individualized care to both domestic and foreign-born trafficked girls ages 11 to 21 at each of their program locations. Upon receiving a tip or call, a FAIR Girls representative meets the girl on location to provide a comprehensive trafficking assessment and initial trauma response. Their team is comprised of a licensed clinical social worker, outreach and case managers, survivor advocates, and social work interns who are trained in providing emergency care to trafficking survivors. We accept client referrals from local and federal law enforcement, government agencies, social workers, teachers, local partners, and the community. We also conduct regular outreach and provide referrals of missing and exploited girls to local and federal law enforcement.

GEMS
Girls Educational & Mentoring Services (GEMS) is the only organization in New York State specifically designed to serve girls and young women who have experienced commercial sexual exploitation and domestic trafficking. Founded in 1998 by Rachel Lloyd, who had been sexually exploited as a teenager, GEMS has helped hundreds of girls and young women, ages 12–24, to exit the commercial sex industry and develop their potential. GEMS provides young women with empathetic, consistent support, and viable opportunities for positive change.

MISSSEY: Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting, and Serving Sexually Exploited Youth
MISSSEY is a community-based organization in Alameda County, CA, founded in 2007 to provide comprehensive services to commercially sexually exploited youth in a safe environment and to work for systemic and community change to prevent such exploitation through public awareness, education, and policy development.

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC)
The NCMEC’s child sex trafficking specialist can provide victim services for child welfare involved survivors. Child sex trafficking recoveries can be complex due to potential factors, such as a child’s abuse history, trauma bonds with an abuser, and involvement with multiple systems, such as social and juvenile services. The child sex trafficking specialist can assist with system advocacy, within the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, in situations when the trafficked child does not have a biological family to return to following recovery.

The National Human Trafficking Resource Center at Polaris Project
Call 1-888-373-7888 or text BeFree (233733)

Safe House of Hope (SHO Hope)
SHO Hope is designed for all former and current sex trafficking victims. Their clients come from many backgrounds and all identify themselves as being formerly or currently “in the life” (prostitution). Ranging in age from 14 to 60 years old, clients come from the surrounding neighborhoods, referrals, and street outreach. The SHO Hope drop-in center serves between 20 and 30 women each day it is open, providing them the opportunity to join an accepting community where they are valued and nurtured. As clients realize their own intrinsic worth, they begin to grow, attain their goals, and change their lives.

Shared Hope International
Shared Hope International strives to prevent the conditions that foster sex trafficking, restore victims of sex slavery, and bring justice to vulnerable women and children. We envision a world passionately opposed to sex trafficking and a community committed to restoring survivors to lives of purpose, value, and choice—one life at a time.

TurnAround, Inc
The TurnAround Anti-Trafficking Program is dedicated to empowering survivors of sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation with the support and services necessary to achieve healing and self-sufficiency, including Emergency and Crisis Response; Human Trafficking Assessment/Case Consultation; Intensive and Ongoing Case Management; Victim Advocacy Program; Drop-in Center Hours (computer access, employment referrals, tutoring); Survivor Support Groups; Individual and Group Trauma-Informed Therapy for survivors and their families; Referrals for Wrap-Around and Ongoing Services; Emergency Shelter; and Transitional Living Programs (18+).

The Wayne Foundation
The Wayne Foundation is a survivor-lead organization with a goal of providing young women in the United States who have fallen victim to DMST (Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking) with a means of leaving the sex industry for good by providing a safe home environment with rehabilitation services.

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For Family Members

The Ark of Hope for Children

The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children—The Prostitution of Children in America: A Guide for Parents and Guardians (2014)(PDF)

The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children Child Sex Trafficking

The Polaris Project Referrals for Anti-Trafficking Providers/Agencies


The Rebecca Project for Human Rights (RPHR)
The RPHR is an organization that advocates for justice, dignity, and reform for vulnerable women and girls in the United States and in Africa. Their Sacred Daughters Girls Initiative is a national juvenile justice and advocacy program for girls and young women commercially trafficked and/or caught in the net of the criminal justice system due to trafficking. The goals of the Sacred Daughters Girls Initiative are to reduce the number of girls exploited for commercial sex; to replace detention with programs that approach girls and young women from a gender-specific, trauma-informed, and strength-based perspective; and to increase leadership and advocacy skills of girls and young women who have been affected by violence.

Women’s Justice Center—A Guide for Mothers, Grandmothers & Others for Helping a Girl Caught in Prostitution or Sex Trafficking
The Women’s Justice Center is a non-profit organization based in California that is devoted to helping young women who are survivors of sexual trafficking and other forms of abuse. Their website includes a practical guide for parents and other caregivers on helping girls who have been forced into domestic sex trafficking.

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